Controlling-Profitability Analysis (CO-PA) with SAP (2nd)

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作者 Marco Sisfontes 2012年出版 分类:sap 1932

Controlling-Profitability Analysis (CO-PA) with SAP (2nd) 英文原版,官方出品!

可编辑带导航非影印版,总计555页,2012年出版!

Contents

Acknowledgments ............................................................................................ 15

Preface ............................................................................................................. 17

1 Introduction and Overview ........................................................ 19

1.1 The Purpose of This Book ............................................................... 21

1.2 How This Book Is Organized ........................................................... 23

1.3 Summary ........................................................................................ 25

2 Basics of Profitability Analysis ................................................... 27

2.1 Fundamental Principles ................................................................... 27

2.2 Profitability Analysis as Multidimensional Analysis .......................... 29

2.3 The Profitability Analysis Process .................................................... 31

2.4 Break-Even Analysis ........................................................................ 33

2.4.1 Revenues, Fixed and Variable Costs .................................... 33

2.4.2 Sunken Costs ..................................................................... 34

2.5 Cost Classifications ......................................................................... 34

2.5.1 Costs Based on Their Function ........................................... 35

2.5.2 Costs Based on Activity ...................................................... 35

2.5.3 Costs Depending on When They’re Charged Against Revenues ........................................................................... 35

2.5.4 Costs Depending on the Authority ..................................... 36

2.5.5 Costs Based on Their Importance to Decision Making ........ 36

2.6 Summary ........................................................................................ 37

3 Introducing CO-PA with SAP ..................................................... 39

3.1 General Overview of CO-PA ........................................................... 39

3.1.1 OLTP ................................................................................. 40

3.1.2 OLAP ................................................................................. 40

3.1.3 Linking OLTP and OLAP ..................................................... 41

3.1.4 SAP ERP ECC 6.0—Specific Recommendations ................... 42

3.2 The SAP Profitability Model ............................................................ 43

3.3 Components of CO-PA ................................................................... 47

3.3.1 Accessing the IMG ............................................................. 49

3.3.2 Profitability Analysis Menu Items ....................................... 49

3.3.3 Master Data ....................................................................... 52

3.3.4 Planning ............................................................................ 53

3.3.5 Flows of Actual Values ....................................................... 54

3.3.6 Information System ............................................................ 56

3.3.7 Tools .................................................................................. 57

3.4 Working with SAP Operating Concern Templates ........................... 58

3.4.1 The Quickstart S_GO Operating Concern Template ............ 59

3.4.2 Customizing ....................................................................... 61

3.4.3 Application Examples: Prepare Application Examples ......... 75

3.4.4 Application Examples: Perform Application Examples ......... 76

3.4.5 Tools .................................................................................. 78

3.5 Manually Activating an Operating Concern and Setting It as Current ........................................................................................... 78

3.6 Summary ........................................................................................ 81

4 Configuring Costing-Based CO-PA ............................................ 83

4.1 General CO-PA Overview ............................................................... 83

4.2 Costing-Based CO-PA versus Account-Based CO-PA ....................... 85

4.3 Creating Characteristics and Value Fields ........................................ 88

4.4 Maintaining an Operating Concern ................................................. 96

4.4.1 Accessing and Creating Operating Concerns ....................... 96

4.4.2 Creating User-Defined Value Fields and Characteristics Within an Operating Concern ............................................ 101

4.4.3 Specifying the Operating Concern Currency ....................... 103

4.5 Defining Profitability Segments and CO-PA Exceptions ................... 104

4.5.1 Profitability Segments Overview ......................................... 104

4.5.2 Exceptions Overview .......................................................... 105

4.5.3 Automatically Excluded Characteristics ............................... 105

4.5.4 Defining Profitability Segment Characteristics .................... 106

4.5.5 Creating Exceptions ........................................................... 107

4.5.6 Exception Recommendations ............................................. 110

4.6 Operating Concern Attributes Tab .................................................. 111

4.7 Assigning a Controlling Area to an Operating Concern .................... 114

4.7.1 Reviewing Controlling Area Components and Verifying the Existence of Operating Concerns .................................. 114

4.7.2 Assigning a Company Code to a Controlling Area ............... 117

4.8 Activating CO-PA in R/3 or SAP ERP ECC 6.0 ................................. 121

4.8.1 Checking the Current Profitability Analysis Activation Status ................................................................................ 121

4.8.2 Performing the Activation .................................................. 122

4.8.3 Verifying the Activation ..................................................... 125

4.9 CO-PA: Additional Functionalities .................................................. 126

4.9.1 Import Operating Concern ................................................. 128

4.9.2 Copy Operating Concern .................................................... 129

4.9.3 Copy Specific Objects ......................................................... 130

4.10 Performing CO-PA Transports ......................................................... 132

4.10.1 Automatic Transport or Manual Transport .......................... 135

4.10.2 Client-Specific and Cross-Client Settings ............................ 136

4.10.3 Transporting Translated Settings ........................................ 137

4.10.4 Transporting CO-PA Assessment Cycles .............................. 139

4.10.5 Transporting CO-PA Layouts .............................................. 142

4.10.6 Transporting Planning Levels .............................................. 145

4.11 Summary ........................................................................................ 146

5 Master Data in CO-PA ............................................................... 149

5.1 Components of Master Data Menus in CO-PA ................................ 149

5.2 Maintaining Characteristic Values ................................................... 151

5.2.1 Define Characteristics Hierarchy ......................................... 153

5.2.2 Derivation, Derivation Tables, and Rules Overview ............ 159

5.2.3 Creating Characteristic Derivations and Derivation Rules .... 170

5.2.4 Valuation in CO-PA ............................................................ 186

5.3 Working with Valuation Methods ................................................... 189

5.3.1 Working with Material Cost Estimates ................................ 191

5.3.2 Working with Conditions and Costing Sheets ..................... 197

5.3.3 Assigning Condition Types to CO-PA Value Fields .............. 205

5.4 Valuation Strategies ........................................................................ 207

5.5 Summary ........................................................................................ 213

6 Introduction to CO-PA Planning ................................................ 215

6.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 215

6.2 The Framework of Corporate Planning: Sales and Profit Planning in CO-PA ........................................................................................ 218

6.3 Planning with CO-PA or SAP NetWeaver BI .................................... 221

6.4 A First Look at the CO-PA Planning Framework .............................. 224

6.5 Number Ranges for Planning Data .................................................. 229

6.6 Maintaining Versions ...................................................................... 230

6.7 Planning with the CO-PA Planning Framework ............................... 232

6.7.1 Planning Levels .................................................................. 233

6.7.2 Planning Package ............................................................... 234

6.7.3 Working with Planning Methods, Parameter Sets, and Planning Layouts ................................................................ 237

6.7.4 Planning Variables ............................................................. 245

6.8 The Report Painter and CO-PA Planning Layouts ............................ 249

6.9 Planning Profiles ............................................................................. 254

6.10 Summary ........................................................................................ 260

7 CO-PA Planning: Configuration ................................................. 261

7.1 Basic Planning Methods in the CO-PA Planning Framework ............ 261

7.1.1 Enter Planning Data ........................................................... 262

7.1.2 Display Planning Data ........................................................ 262

7.1.3 Copy .................................................................................. 263

7.1.4 Forecast ............................................................................. 267

7.1.5 Valuation ........................................................................... 276

7.1.6 Revaluation ........................................................................ 276

7.1.7 Ratios ................................................................................ 280

7.1.8 Delete ................................................................................ 291

7.2 Planning Sequences ........................................................................ 293

7.3 Configuring CO-PA Assessments Cycles ......................................... 295

7.3.1 Configuring Allocations and Assessment Cycles .................. 298

7.3.2 Creating a CO-PA Assessment Cycle ................................... 304

7.4 Top-Down Distribution .................................................................. 311

7.5 Summary ........................................................................................ 316

8 Flows of Actual Values: Transferring Actual Data into CO-PA ................................................................................. 319

8.1 Overview ........................................................................................ 320

8.2 General Review of the CO-PA Flows of Actual Values Menu ........... 322

8.3 Transfer of Incoming Sales Orders ................................................... 324

8.3.1 Activating the Transfer of Incoming Sales Orders ................ 328

8.3.2 Correct Errors in Sales Orders ............................................. 331

8.3.3 Post Existing Sales Orders to CO-PA ................................... 334

8.4 Transfer of Billing Documents ......................................................... 338

8.5 Order and Project Settlement ......................................................... 341

8.5.1 Define a PA Transfer Structure for Settlement .................... 342

8.5.2 Assign a PA Transfer Structure to a Settlement Profile ........ 344

8.6 Direct Posting from FI/MM ............................................................ 350

8.6.1 Maintain PA Transfer Structure for Direct Postings ............. 351

8.6.2 Automatic Account Assignment ......................................... 355

8.7 Settlement of Production Variances ................................................ 358

8.8 Transfer of Overhead ...................................................................... 360

8.9 Summary ........................................................................................ 362

9 CO-PA Reporting: Basics ........................................................... 363

9.1 CO-PA Reporting Scenarios ............................................................ 364

9.2 Working with Reports in CO-PA ..................................................... 367

9.2.1 Report Types ...................................................................... 368

9.2.2 Creating a Basic Report ...................................................... 369

9.2.3 Creating Reports Based on Line Items ................................ 380

9.3 Working with Forms ....................................................................... 384

9.4 Summary ........................................................................................ 390

10 CO-PA Reporting: Configuration ............................................... 391

10.1 Predefining Headers and Footers .................................................... 391

10.1.1 Frames ............................................................................... 393

10.1.2 General Variables ............................................................... 395

10.1.3 Selection Parameters .......................................................... 397

10.1.4 Footers .............................................................................. 399

10.2 Defining Variables in Reports .......................................................... 400

10.3 CO-PA Reporting: Best Practices ..................................................... 409

10.3.1 Creating Frozen Reports ..................................................... 411

10.3.2 Key Figure Schemes ........................................................... 421

10.3.3 Improving Performance in Reports and Forms Using Summarization Levels ......................................................... 431

10.4 Summary ........................................................................................ 434

11 Working with Account-Based CO-PA ....................................... 435

11.1 Differences between Costing-Based and Account-Based CO-PA ...... 435

11.1.1 Defining Cost Elements for CO-PA ..................................... 436

11.1.2 Changing the Operating Concern from Costing-Based to Account-Based CO-PA ....................................................... 439

11.1.3 Controlling Areas and Account-Based CO-PA ..................... 439

11.1.4 Currencies and Account-Based CO-PA ............................... 440

11.1.5 Data Structures and Data Retention ................................... 440

11.1.6 Characteristic Derivation and Valuation ............................. 441

11.1.7 Actual Data Flow and Data Transfer ................................... 441

11.1.8 Profitability Analysis Reports .............................................. 442

11.1.9 Assessment of Cost Center Costs ........................................ 443

11.1.10 Order and Project Settlement ............................................ 443

11.1.11 Internal Activity Allocation ................................................. 443

11.1.12 Work in Process (WIP) and Results Analysis (RA) ................ 444

11.1.13 Conclusion ......................................................................... 455

11.2 Sales and Profit Planning ................................................................ 456

11.3 External Data Transfer .................................................................... 456

11.4 Summary ........................................................................................ 456

12 Tips and Tricks with CO-PA ....................................................... 459

12.1 Integrate Planning Layouts with Microsoft Excel ............................. 459

12.2 Working with Summarization Levels ............................................... 462

12.3 Performing Report Splitting ............................................................ 469

12.4 Working with the Report-Report Interface (RRI) ............................. 471

12.5 Final Tips ........................................................................................ 476

12.6 Summary ........................................................................................ 477

13 Enhancing CO-PA with SAP BusinessObjects Tools .................. 479

13.1 CO-PA Integration with SAP Business Analytics .............................. 480

13.1.1 Existing Technologies in the Business Analytics Suite .......... 480

13.1.2 SAP BusinessObjects Tools—Activating Pre-Delivered CO-PA Functionality Available in SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse .......................................................... 483

13.1.3 What Tools Should I Use? .................................................. 488

13.2 SAP BusinessObjects Integration with CO-PA Structures ................. 489

13.3 Comparing SAP BusinessObjects Planning and Consolidation (BPC) and CO-PA ............................................................................ 492

13.3.1 Deciding if SAP BPC is Right for You .................................. 494

13.3.2 General Overview of the SAP BPC Extraction and Upload Process .................................................................. 500

13.4 SAP High Performance Analytic Appliance (HANA) and In-Memory Computing ................................................................... 511

13.4.1 Capabilities Overview ........................................................ 512

13.4.2 SAP HANA Architecture ..................................................... 515

13.4.3 A New Platform to Support a Variety of Tools .................... 518

13.4.4 A Quick Scenario: CO-PA and SAP HANA .......................... 520

13.5 Summary ........................................................................................ 526

14 Concluding Remarks ................................................................... 529

Appendices ....................................................................................... 533

A Glossary .................................................................................................... 535

B Bibliography .............................................................................................. 539

C The Author ............................................................................................... 541

Index ................................................................................................................ 543

COPA SAP 英文原版
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