SAP Press - Sales and Inventory Planning with SAP APO

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作者 SAP 2007年出版 分类:sap 1418

SAP Press - Sales and Inventory Planning with SAP APO 官方出品,英文原版,内容可编辑带导航非影印版!

 Introduction ......................................................................... 15
1.1 Definition of Supply Chain Management (SCM) ....................... 15
1.2 Market Challenges Facing the Supply Chain ............................. 15
1.3 From Material Requirements Planning (MRP) to
Supply Chain Management ...................................................... 16
1.4 Planning as a Critical Process ................................................... 19
1.5 Target Group and Structure of this Book .................................. 19
2 Overview of SAP APO .......................................................... 21
2.1 Requirements of Supply Chain Networks ................................. 21
2.2 Key Functions of SAP SCM ...................................................... 22
2.2.1 Planning ..................................................................... 23
2.2.2 Execution .................................................................... 27
2.2.3 Coordination ............................................................... 29
2.2.4 Collaboration .............................................................. 29
2.3 Demand Planning (DP) ............................................................ 30
2.3.1 Multi-Level Planning ................................................... 31
2.3.2 Forecasts ..................................................................... 31
2.3.3 Lifecycle Management ................................................ 32
2.3.4 Promotion Planning .................................................... 33
2.4 Inventory Planning (in Supply Network Planning) .................... 33
2.4.1 Safety Stock Planning .................................................. 34
2.4.2 Inventory Planning ...................................................... 34
2.4.3 Distribution Resource Planning ................................... 36
2.5 Integrated Supply Chain Planning ............................................ 38
2.6 Summary ................................................................................. 40
3 Demand Planning with SAP APO-DP
—Basic Principles ................................................................. 41
3.1 Overview of the Administration of Demand Planning .............. 41
3.2 Configuring the Administrator Workbench ............................... 43
3.2.1 Overview .................................................................... 43
3.2.2 InfoObjects and Other Relevant Terms from
SAP NetWeaver BI ...................................................... 45
3.2.3 InfoCubes ................................................................... 48
3.2.4 Saving Key Figures and Characteristics in
the InfoCube ............................................................... 51
3.3 Configuring the S&DP Administrator Workbench ..................... 52
3.3.1 Overview .................................................................... 52
3.3.2 Creating the Basic Planning Object Structure ............... 53
3.3.3 Creating Characteristic Value Combinations ................ 54
3.3.4 Configuring the Planning Area ..................................... 58
3.4 Planning Books ........................................................................ 64
3.4.1 Creating Planning Books ............................................. 66
3.4.2 Assigning Users to a Planning Book ............................. 70
3.5 Advanced Macros .................................................................... 71
3.6 Summary ................................................................................. 76
4 Demand Planning with SAP APO-DP
—Implementation ................................................................ 77
4.1 Creating a Demand Forecast .................................................... 78
4.1.1 Interactive Demand Planning ...................................... 78
4.1.2 Carrying Out Demand Planning (Sample Case) ............ 84
4.2 Forecasts ................................................................................. 103
4.2.1 Aggregation and Disaggregation ................................. 103
4.2.2 Introduction to the Different Forecasting
Techniques ................................................................. 108
4.2.3 Quantitative Forecasting Techniques in Detail ............. 112
4.3 Monitoring the Forecast Quality .............................................. 145
4.3.1 Introduction ................................................................ 146
4.3.2 Forecast Error ............................................................. 147
4.3.3 Causal Forecast Errors (MLR) ....................................... 155
4.3.4 Forecast Errors in SAP APO—Summary ....................... 158
4.3.5 Alert Monitor .............................................................. 159
4.4 Lifecycle Planning .................................................................... 161
4.4.1 Introduction ................................................................ 161
4.4.2 Like Profiles ................................................................ 164
4.4.3 Phase-In/Phase-Out Profiles ........................................ 165
4.4.4 Product Interchangeability .......................................... 168
4.5 Promotion Planning ................................................................. 175
4.5.1 Overview .................................................................... 175
4.5.2 Creating a Promotion .................................................. 176
4.5.3 Promotion Base ........................................................... 179
4.6 Collaborative Demand Planning ............................................... 180
4.6.1 Overview .................................................................... 180
4.6.2 CLP Architecture and Data Transfer ............................. 181
4.6.3 Process Flow for Collaborative Demand Planning ........ 182
4.7 Forecasting with BOMs ........................................................... 183
4.7.1 Overview .................................................................... 183
4.7.2 Process Flow ............................................................... 184
4.8 Result of the Demand Planning ............................................... 190
4.8.1 Transfer to Program Planning in SAP ERP .................... 191
4.8.2 Transfer to Supply Network Planning .......................... 192
4.8.3 Sample Results ............................................................ 192
4.9 Realignment ............................................................................ 196
4.9.1 Areas of Use ................................................................ 196
4.9.2 Realignment ............................................................... 197
4.9.3 Copying Data .............................................................. 198
4.10 Summary ................................................................................. 198
5 Inventory Planning with SAP APO-SNP
—Basic Principles ................................................................. 199
5.1 Supply Network Planning Process ............................................ 200
5.2 Configuring the Supply and Demand Planning
Administration Workbench ...................................................... 203
5.2.1 Overview .................................................................... 203
5.2.2 Master Planning Object Structure ............................... 204
5.2.3 Configuring the Planning Area ..................................... 205
5.3 Planning Books ........................................................................ 207
5.3.1 Standard Planning Books ............................................. 207
5.3.2 Individual Planning Books ........................................... 208
5.4 Advanced Macros .................................................................... 208
5.5 SNP Master Data ..................................................................... 209
5.5.1 Locations .................................................................... 209
5.5.2 Products ..................................................................... 210
5.5.3 Resources ................................................................... 215
5.5.4 Production Process Model (PPM) ................................ 218
5.5.5 Production Data Structure (PDS) ................................. 222
5.5.6 Transportation Lanes ................................................... 223
5.5.7 Master Data for Hierarchical Planning ......................... 227
5.5.8 Setting Up the SCM Model ......................................... 229
5.6 Summary ................................................................................. 230
6 Inventory Planning with SAP APO-SNP
—Implementation ................................................................ 231
6.1 Desktop for Interactive SNP Planning ...................................... 231
6.1.1 Selection Area ............................................................. 232
6.1.2 Work Area .................................................................. 234
6.2 Planning Method: Heuristic-Based Planning ............................. 235
6.2.1 Operation of the Heuristic Run ................................... 235
6.2.2 Heuristic Profiles ......................................................... 237
6.2.3 Capacity Leveling ........................................................ 238
6.2.4 Sample SNP Heuristic Planning with
Capacity Leveling ........................................................ 240
6.2.5 Procurement Scheduling Agreements in the
Heuristic-Based SNP Planning ..................................... 244
6.2.6 Direct Delivery from the Production Plant
to the Customer .......................................................... 248
6.3 Planning Method: Optimization in the SNP Planning ............... 249
6.3.1 Introduction to SNP Optimization ............................... 249
6.3.2 Processing the Optimization Run ................................ 255
6.3.3 Finite Planning with the SNP Optimizer ...................... 256
6.3.4 Determining the Supply Source with
the SNP Optimizer ...................................................... 263
6.3.5 Lot-Size Planning with the SNP Optimizer ................... 266
6.3.6 Inventory Planning ...................................................... 273
6.3.7 Optimization Profiles .................................................. 279
6.3.8 Executing the Optimizer in the Interactive
Planning (Example) ..................................................... 281
6.4 Planning Method: Capable-to-Match (CTM) ............................ 288
6.4.1 Possible Applications of CTM Planning ........................ 288
6.4.2 CTM Planning Process ................................................. 290
6.4.3 Settings for the CTM Planning ..................................... 291
6.4.4 Planning Algorithm ..................................................... 302
6.5 Analyzing Planning Results ...................................................... 305
6.5.1 Technical Aspects of the CTM Planning Run ................ 306
6.5.2 Evaluating the CTM Planning Results .......................... 307
6.6 Comparing the Planning Methods ............................................ 309
6.7 Safety Stock Planning ............................................................... 311
6.7.1 Simple and Enhanced Safety Stock Methods ............... 314
6.7.2 Standard Safety Stock Planning in SAP APO ................ 315
6.7.3 Enhanced Safety Stock Planning in SAP APO ............... 322
6.7.4 Conclusion .................................................................. 335
6.8 Deployment/Replenishment .................................................... 336
6.8.1 Deployment Heuristic ................................................. 336
6.8.2 Real-Time Deployment ............................................... 344
6.8.3 Deployment Optimization ........................................... 344
6.9 Transport Load Builder (TLB) ................................................... 354
6.9.1 Grouping Transport Loads Using TLB ........................... 355
6.9.2 Procedure for Remaining Quantities ............................ 356
6.9.3 Setting Up the Master Data for TLB ............................. 357
6.10 Aggregated SNP Planning ........................................................ 365
6.10.1 Prerequisites for Aggregated Planning ......................... 365
6.10.2 Aggregated Safety Stock Planning ............................... 367
6.10.3 Single-Level Assignment of Receipts and
Requirements .............................................................. 368
6.10.4 SNP Disaggregation .................................................... 369
6.10.5 SNP Aggregation ......................................................... 373
6.11 Product Interchangeability in SNP Planning ............................. 376
6.11.1 Discontinuation of Products ........................................ 377
6.11.2 Supersession Chain ..................................................... 377
6.11.3 Form-Fit-Function Class (FFF Class) ............................. 378
6.11.4 Special Features When Using the SNP Optimizer ......... 378
6.12 Transferring SNP Planning Results ............................................ 379
6.12.1 Releasing SNP Planning to Demand Planning .............. 379
6.12.2 Converting SNP Orders for Production Planning
and Procurement into PP/DS Orders ........................... 379
6.13 Summary ................................................................................. 381
7 SAP APO—Integration and Architecture ............................. 383
7.1 Integration with ERP Systems .................................................. 383
7.1.1 Plug-In (PI) ................................................................. 385
7.1.2 Core Interface (CIF) ..................................................... 386
7.1.3 Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI) .... 388
7.2 Integration with SAP NetWeaver BI ......................................... 389
7.3 Architecture and System Landscape ......................................... 390
7.3.1 SAP Quick Sizer .......................................................... 390
7.3.2 SAP liveCache ............................................................. 390
7.4 Summary ................................................................................. 391
8 Implementation Process ...................................................... 393
8.1 Project Methodology ............................................................... 393
8.1.1 Project Preparation ..................................................... 394
8.1.2 Business Blueprint ....................................................... 394
8.1.3 Realization .................................................................. 397
8.1.4 Final Preparation ......................................................... 398
8.1.5 Go Live & Support ....................................................... 398
8.2 SAP Solution Manager ............................................................. 398
8.3 Project Organization ................................................................ 401
8.3.1 Project Management ................................................... 401
8.3.2 Steering Committee .................................................... 402
8.3.3 Project Core Team ...................................................... 402
8.3.4 Business Process Owner .............................................. 403
8.3.5 Key Users .................................................................... 403
8.3.6 Data Processing Team ................................................. 404
8.4 Summary ................................................................................. 405

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